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    中考英语总复习资料

    2013-7-1 11:20:08 本站原创 佚名 【字体:
    第?#40644;?词法

    一、 名词

    (一) 知识概要

        名词的概念在不同的语法教课书中有不同的解释?#22836;?#31867;方法,但就?#23548;?#24212;用来?#19981;?#26159;不要过分地追求其理论概念,而更多的要把注意力放在其应用上来。我们不妨把它分为两大类:专有名词与普通名词。顾名?#23478;澹?#19987;有名词是指:个人、事物、机关?#20154;?#19987;有的名称,如,the Great Wall, America…它们是不能随意变动的。而普通名词中则包括个体名词,如pen, worker…它表示单一的个体人或事物;集体名词,如:family,class, team,它表示的是由若干个个体组成的集合体;物质名词,如:water,paper…它表示的是一种物质,原材料;而后一种是抽象名词,如:work, time…它表示着一种在?#23548;?#29983;活中看不见、摸不到,但却与?#23548;?#29983;活紧密相关的某些动作、状态、品质的抽象概念。见下表。

        名词一览表

    种类

    专有名词
     London, John, the Communist Party of China

    普 通 名 词 类名词 nurse, boy, worker, pencil, dog, table

    集体名词 class, family, army, police, team, people

    物质名词 water, steel, glass, cotton, wood, sand

    抽象名词 happiness, love, work, life, courage, honest

    功用

    主语 My family is now in New York.

    表语 His father is a scientist.

    宾语 We love our great motherland.

    宾语补足语 He made London the base for his work.

    定语 The girls are making paper flowesrs.

    状语 The car cost him 1000 dollars.

    同位语 Mr Brown, a famous scientist, will come here.

    名词在使用中的难点在于名词的数,即可数名词与不可数名词的?#23548;?#24212;用。不可数名词不能用数字计算,所以它通常只有单数形式。它包含有专有名词、物质名词、抽象名词等,如:English,air,water,cotton,work…可数名词是可以用数?#32771;右?#35745;算的名词,所以它具有单数形式?#36879;词?#24418;式?#34903;幀?#21487;数名词复数形式的构成规律是:

    1.     一般情况加s,如:pen—pens, doctor—doctors,boy—boys,其读音规则是在清辅音后读[s],在元音和浊辅音后读[z]。如:map—map , boy—boys.

    2. 在以s,sh,ch,x结尾的名词后面加es,如:bus—buses,class—classes,其读音为[iz]。

    3. 以ce,se,ze,(d)ge结尾的名词加s,其读音为[iz]。

    4. 以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,要将y变为i再加es,读作[z],如:factory—factories,country—countries, family—families.但要注意的是以元音字母加y结尾的名词的复数形式只加s,如:boy—boys,day—days。

    5. 以o结尾的名词的复数形式一般要加es,但如果o前面是元音字母或外?#21019;剩?#32553;?#21019;?#20197;o结尾的则只加s,如:tomato—tomatoes,hero—heroes;photo—photos,radio—radios,piano—pianos

    6. 以f或fe结尾的名词的复数形式要将f或fe变为v再加es,如:knife—knives, leaf—leaves, 但有些例外的词如roof的复数形式是roofs。

    7. 不规则名词的复数形式是要单个记忆的,它没有规律可循,如:man—men,woman—women, child—children, foot—feet,tooth—teeth, mouse—mice

    8. 单复同形的名词有:fish, sheep,deer…

    9. 单数形式但其意为复数的名词有:people,police等。名词还有格的变化,其主格可作主语,宾格可作宾语。还有所有格,用来表示人或物的所有,以及领属关系。表示有生命的名词的所有格其单数形式是加's其复数形式是s',如其结尾不是s的复数形式仍加's,如:a student's room, students' rooms, Children's Day.在表示时间、距离、世界、国家……名词的所有格要用's,如:a twenty minutes' walk.但无生命名词的所有格则必须用of结构,如:the capital of our country, the colour of the flowers

    (二) 正误辨析

    [误]Please give me a paper.

    [正]Please give me a piece of paper.

    [析]不要认为可以数的名?#31034;?#26159;可数名词,这种原因是对英语中可数与不可数名词的概念与中文中的能数与不能数相混淆了,所以造成了这样的错误,因paper在英语中是属于物质名词一类,是不可数名词。而不可数名词要表达数量时,要用与之相关的量词来表达,如:two pieces of paper.

    (三) 例题解析

    1. Lucy and Lily___in the same class.
    A.     am  B. is  C. are  D. be

    [答案]C.

    [析]由and连接两个单数名词作主语时应按复数名词?#21019;?#37197;谓语动词。

    2. Which is the ___to the bus stop, please?
    A  road B  way C street D address

    [答案]B.

    [析]这是考察同意?#26102;?#26512;,road是指较宽阔的大道,意为“乡间公路”,而street意为道路两边的建筑物较高,可视为街道之意,而way则多为要到达某地所要经过的途径,还可引深为方式、方法。而address则为“地址”。如:There is a car running along the country road. I live at 105 Park street. Can you show me the way to the National Museum?

    3. Hurry up!There is___ time left.
    A little  B  a little  C  few  D  a few

    [答案]A.

    [析]因time作为时间讲为不可数名词,所以不可用few,a few来修饰。另外,英文的表达法与中文不同,中文讲,快点,时间不多了,而英文要讲,快点,没时间了。因此,要用little而不用a little.


    二、 冠词

    (一) 知识概要


        冠词在英语中只有3个词,分为两类:不定冠词a与an,定冠词the。 a用在以辅音开始的单数名词前,an用于以元音开始的单词前。不定冠词用来表示一类事物中泛指的某一事物,而定冠词则用于特指的某一个或某些事物,可用于不可数名词、可数名词单数及可数名词复数前。

    (二) 正误辨析

    [误]“Can you help me”  “Sorry, I'm in hurry.”

    [正]“Can you help me”  “Sorry. I'm in a hurry.”

    [析]不定冠词的主要用法如下:

    1. 用来表示一类人或事物,如:She is a teacher.

    2. ?#25913;?#19968;类人或事物中的一个,如:An elephant is bigger than a horse.

    3. 泛?#25913;?#19968;人或事物,如:A man is waiting for you at the school gate.

    4. 相当于“one”的概念,如:I just bought a new dictionary.

    5. 其主要的难点是用在固定词组中:

    如:have a walk/a rest /a look

    又如:in a hurry 匆匆忙忙
    make a face 作鬼脸
    do somebody a  favour 帮某人忙
    a number of =many

    又如:have a good time (玩得好)
    have a cold (感冒)
    have a headache (头痛)
    have a break=have a rest

    [误]I bought the dictionary yesterday. A dictionary is very good.

    [正]I bought a dictionary yesterday. The dictionary is very good.

    [析]在文章中第一次提到某物时用不定冠词,而第二次提到时用定冠词。

    (三) 例题解析

    1   Mr Li is___ old worker.
    A a  B  an  C some  D  /

    [答案]B.

    [析]an用于元音音素开始的单词前。

    2   English is___  useful language in ___  world.
    A  an, the   B  a, the    C  the, /    D   /,the

    [答案]B.

    [析]因useful的第一个音素是[j],它是辅音音素。

    3   What ___   interesting book it is?
    A a   B  an   C  the   D   /

    [答案]B.

    [析]这是感叹句,因为移到原一般句前面的强调部分中有可数名词book,所以应加冠词,而interesting的第一音素是元音所以要加an。


    三、 代词

    (一)识知概要

    英语中代词可以分为人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、指示代词、疑问代词、不定代词。人称代词主要有主格和宾格之别。请看下表

    人称 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们 

    主格 i you  he she it we you they

    宾格 me you him her it  us you them

    物主代词?#20013;?#23481;?#24066;?#29289;主代词和名?#24066;?#29289;主代词?#34903;幀?#35831;看下表

    人称 我的 你的 他的 她的 它的 我们的 你们的 他们的

    形容?#24066;?my  your  his her its ours your they

    名?#24066;?mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs

    反身代词可见下表

    人称 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们

    反身代词 myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourself themselves

    指示代词主要有this, that, these, those

    疑问代词有:who, whom whose, what, which,

    还有疑问副词when, how, where, why。

    不定代词在初中课本中主要有some, any, many, much, each, neither, other, another, all, both, one, none, either…

    (二) 正误辨析

    [误]Tom's mother is taller than my.

    [正]Tom's mother is taller than mine.

    [析]形容?#24066;?#29289;主代词可以作定语,也就是讲它可以作形容词,如:my book,而这句话的意思是:汤姆的妈妈比我的妈妈高。比较的对象是my mother,也就是mine。

    [误]We have a lot of homework to do today. So we need two or three hours to finish them.

    [正]We have a lot of homework to do today. So we need two or three hours to finish it.

    [析]在应用代词时,要注意人称,格与数的一致性。这里it所代替的是不可数名词homework, 所以应用it。

     (三) 例题解析

    1 These are ___books. Yours are over there.
    A I   B  my   C  me   D mine

    [答案]B.

    [析]这里应用形容?#24066;?#29289;主代词。

    2 —___  is she?
    — She is a teacher.
    A   What    B  How    C  Who    D   Where

    [答案]A.

    [析]这里的四个疑问词放在?#31034;?#20013;全都成立,但其意义不同。What is she?应译为“她的工作是什么?”或“她是做什么的?”而How is she?应译为“她身体如何?”而Who is she?应译为“她是谁?”其答语应为“她叫什么名字。”而Where is she?应为“她在什么地方?”由答语决定了这道题的选择。

    3___ is wrong with my watch. It has stopped___.
    A  Something, working   B  Something, to work
    C    Any thing, working   D Anything, to work

    [答案]A.

    [析]因为是肯定句所以应用Something,其后由于表停?#26500;?#20316;了,则stop后要用动名词。


    四、 形容词、副词

    (一) 知识概要

        形容词的用法很活跃,在英语中用处也很多,但英语?#34892;?#39280;可数名词和不可数名词的修饰语和词组有时不同,要特别?#21491;?#27880;意。下面将初中学习阶段中遇到的修饰可数名词的词和词组归纳如下:many, no, several, some, a few, a lot, lots, plenty, plenty of, a lot of, a large number of, enough。而修饰不可数名词的词或词组如下:much, no, some, a lot, a great deal, lots, plenty, a lot of, plenty of。其中some, no, a lot of, plenty of既?#23578;?#39280;可数名词又?#23578;?#39280;不可数名词。英语?#34892;?#23481;词与副词有原级、比较级、最高级之分,其规则如下:

    构词法 原 级 比较级 最高级                       加er,或est Tall
    young    taller
    younger
     tallest
    youngest

    只加r或st nice
    large
     nicer
    larger
     nicest
    largest

    重读闭音节末尾只有一个辅音 字母时双写该字母加er、est big
    fat
    hot
     bigger
    fatter
    hotter
     biggest
    fattest
    hottest

    不规则变化的形容词或副词:
    原 级 比较级 最高级
    good better best
    Well better best
    bad worse worst
    badly worse worst
    many more most

        要注意的是许多形容词同时又是副词,如:back, all, alone, either, far, high, slow等。而有些形容词则要经过一定变化才能转为副词,其规律如下:
    构词法 形容词 副 词
    一般加ly Careful
    kind
     carefully
    kindly

    尾是y时将y变成i加ly Happy
    busy
    easy
     Happily

    在学习过程中要注意其变化。
       
        此外并不是所有副词都可以修饰比较级和最高级形容词。能修饰比较级的有:much, yet, far, still, a great deal, even 和a little. 能修饰最高级的有:the very, much the, far等。

    (二) 正误辨析

    [误] The young likes playing football very much.

    [正] The young like playing football very much.

    [析] 定冠词?#26377;?#23481;?#26102;?#31034;一类人,应作复数?#21019;?#32780;定冠词?#26377;?#23481;?#26102;?#31034;抽象事物时则要看作单数,如:The beautiful is not always kindness.?#35272;?#24182;不总代表善良。

    (三) 例题解析

    1 I think Chinese is ___ than maths.
    A. interesting B more interesting
    C. most interesting D. the most interesting 

    [答案] B. 

    [析] 在有than作比较的句子中应用形容词的比较级。

    2 - What does Lucy like better, singing or dancing?
    - Singing. of course. She's known to ___ it.
    A. be good at B. be good for
    C. be bad at D. be bad for

    [答案] A.

    [析] be good at为固定搭配,意为"擅长作某事"。初中英语中有些这样的固定用法应记牢,而不能似是而非。如:be good at, be bad at, be poor in, be week in, be fit for

    3 The Huang He River is one of ___ in China.
    A. The long river B. the longest river
    C. the longest rivers D. the longer river 

    [答案] C. 

    [析] 在one of + 定冠词+最高级之后的名词应用复数形式。


    五、 连 词

    (一) 知识概要

        连词是一种在句子与句子之间,短语之间以及名词等其他词语之间起连接作用的虚词,它不能单独作句子的成份。按其意义可分为并列连词和从属连词两大类。并列连词连接的双方是对等的。常有的并列连词有and, both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, as well as等。但如果连接的两部分意义不趋向一致,意义有转折的并列连词有:but, however, while (而),only (只不过)。还有表示选择关系的并列连词,如:or, or else, otherwise… 再有的是连接双方,互为因果,或表示前因后果的连词有:for, so, therefore (因此),then等。从属连词在初中?#27573;?#20869;常常用来连?#29992;市?#20174;句,如:that, if, whether, 其次用来连接状语从句。其中有原因状语从句,常用的连接词有:when while, as, since, before, after, once, as soon as, until, till 连接条件状语的连词有:if, unless, as long as 等,而原因状语的连接词有because, since, as, now that (既然)。目的、结果、方式、比较、地点等状语从句的连接词有:so that, so…that, such…that, as…as, than, where… 它们在句子与文章中几乎无处不见。具体用法见下表。

    连词用法一览表

    种类 功用 例句

    并列连词  连接具有并列关系的 词 He knows neither English nor French.
    短语 Are you going by bus or on foot?
    分句 Mary was a good girl, but she had one shortcoming. 
    从属连词 引导:  状语从句  I'll do it as you told me.
    You will be late unless you hurry.
    连接代词和连接副词 主语从句  What he said proved true.
    When we'll start has not been decided yet.
    表语从句  This is why he didn't come yesterday.
    That is where he lives.
    宾语从句 The man asked me which I liked best.
    I can't understand why she is so late.
    关系代词和关系副词  定语从句  Nicotine is a drug that gets one into the habit of smoking.
    He came last night when I was out.

    (二) 正误辨析

    [误] Both my parents are not here. They went to the concert just now.

    [正] Neither of my parents is here. They went to the concert just now.

    [析] 在英语中both一般用于肯定句中,如用于否定句中,其意义也不同于汉语,如:Both of us are not right. 在英语中应被理解为"我们俩不?#32423;浴?quot;而Neither of us is right。 才能被理解为"我们俩无一正确"。

    [误] He or his parents has some tickets for the film.

    [正] He or his parents have some tickets for the film.

    [析] 由or 连接?#34903;?#35821;时,谓语动词应与相临近的那一个主语保持一致。

    [误] You should study hard, and you won't pass the exam.

    (三) 例题解析

    1 We bought Granny a present, ___ she didn't like it.
    A. but B. and
    C. or D. so 

    [答案] A. 

    [析] 由于句意的原因,应选择转折连词。

    2 Run quickly, ___ we'll miss the early train.
    A. and B. but
    C. so D. or 

    [答案] D. 

    [析] or这里应译为:否则。

    3 I'll give the book to him ___ he comes back.
    A. since B. as soon as
    C. before D. until 

    [答案] B. 

    [析] as soon as 引出的时间状语从句应用一般现在时表示将来要发生的动作。


    六、 介 词

    (一) 知识概要


        介词在英语中用法很活,也无一定规律可循。在初中?#27573;?#20869;还应学一个记住一个,特别是那些和动词的特殊搭配。这样长期下去不断学习自然会总结出一套自己的规律来。下面是一般的规律,可帮助学习时参考,千万不要作为定律去背?#26657;?#29031;搬。
    介词 表示时间 表示地点方位 表示原因方式其他

    about 大约在……时间about five o'clock 在周围,大?#32423;?#36828;about five kilometres   关于、涉及
    talk about you
     
    above   高出某?#40644;?#38754;
    above sea level
        
    across   横过 walk across the street对面 across the street    
    after 在……之后
    after supper
     跟……后面
    one after another
       追赶
    run after you

    (二) 正误辨析

    [误] We got to the top of the mountain in daybreak.

    [正] We got to the top of the mountain at day break.

    [析] at用于具体时刻之前,如:sunrise, midday, noon, sunset, midnight, night。

    [误] Don't sleep at daytime

    [正] Don't sleep in daytime.

    [析] in 要用于较长的一段时间之内,如:in the morning / afternoon, 或 in the week / month / year. 或 in spring / supper /autumn / winter等等。

    (三) 例题解析

    1 - Thank you ___ the beautiful flowers!
    - Not at all.
    A in B on C at D for

    [答案] D.

    [析] 由于某事向某人道谢应用for。

    2 Can you answer this question ___ English?
    A by B in C with D from


    [答案] B.

    [析] in 表示用语言、声音、或材料,如:He answered the question in a low voice.

    3 Look ___ the map ___ China ___ the wall, please.
    A after, of, in B at, of, in
    C after, in, on D at, of, on

    [答案] D.

    [析] look at 为"看",而on the wall为"在墙表面挂着",而in the wall 则是"在墙内",如:There is hole in the wall.墙上有个洞。


    七、 数 词

     (一) 知识概要


        数词用来表示人或物的数目多少和顺序。所以数词主要有?#34903;鄭?#22522;数词,用于计数,如:one, two…而序数词用于表示位置先后或次序,台:first second…其构成法如下:

    阿拉伯数字 基数词 序数词 简写序数词
    1 one first 1st
    2 two second 2nd
    3 three third 3rd
    4 four fourth 4th
    5 five fifth 5th
    6 six sixth 6th
    7 seven seventh 7th
    8 eight eighth 8th
    9 nine ninth 9th
    10 ten tenth 10th

    基数词与序数词都有一定的构成方法,但都有特殊例外的几个字,所以除了要学会一般构成法之外,还要特别记熟一些例外。因它们在考试中出现的频率很高。

    1基数词构成结构

    2. 1~99的两位数字,在10位?#36879;?#20301;之间加连字符构成,如89-eighty-nine.?#20445;埃薄梗梗?#30340;三位数字,由hundred 加and 再加二位数或未位数字,如: 101-one hundred and one, 223-two hundred and twenty-three.四位以上数字,应从个?#40644;?#21521;前数三位加逗号,读作thousand,再数三位加第二个逗号,读作million,再数三位加逗号,读作billion,其读法如下:
    1001-one thousand and one5?#24120;福?five thousand, three hundred and eighty-six要注意的是hundred, thousand, million与billion的用法。①前面有别的基数词时,即若干个百、千、百万、十亿时,其本身都不要加s,如:three hundred students。 ② 若表示成百,成千或数百,数千时,前面不能有基数词,但其本身要用复数形式,然后+of+名词复数。如:thousands and thousands of。 (成千上万)

    2 序数词的构成法
    序数词除first, second, third 以外,其余一般在词尾加th构成,除一般略有差异的各别数词外,很容易掌握。其二位数或多位数只将后面的个位数字改为序数词,其前面各位数字均不改变,都用基数词。

    3 其他数字表示法
    小数的小数点读作point,零读作o[u]或zero,小数点后面的数字按个位基数词?#26469;?#35835;出。分数分子用基数词,分母用序数词,当分子大于1时,分数要在序数词上加s,但?#20445;?#29992;one half, 1 4 用a quarter. 1 3 读作one third而 2 3 读作two thirds。百分数(%),读作per cent (percent),但不论是多少均用作单数形式不能加s。表示日期有?#34903;?#35828;法和四?#20013;?#27861;,如:2月1号英语表达法为:the first of February而美语为February (the) first,但其书写上可有四?#20013;?#27861;① February 1 ② February 1st ③ 1st February ④ 1/2。倍数的讲法有所不同。两倍用twice,而三倍以上用序数词加times,如:He has three times as many books as I have.

    (二) 正误辨析
    [误] 1107 should be read as a thousand a hundred as seven.

    [正] 1107 should be read as one thousand one hundred and seven.

    [析] 在读数字时,如:and前只有百或千时,用one hundred/ one thousand 还是a hundred /a thousand全是可以的。但如果文有百又有千时,则只能用one不要用a。 如果没有and时,如:1100也只能读作one thousand one hundred 或eleven hundred.

    [误] I drove about half mile.

    [正] I drove about half a mile.

    [析] 半小时为half an hour, 半天为half a day, 半镑为half a pound, 尽量避免用half a year, half a month, 要用six months, two weeks 或 fifteen days 要注意的是Half of the work is done Half of the books are sold. 当Half 作名词时,其谓语动词要看of后面的名词而定。如名词是不可数名词则用单数谓语动词,如是复数名词时,则要用复数谓语动词。要注意的是一个半的表达法,如:One and a half apples is left on the table.其名词要用复数,但谓语动词则要用单数。

    (三) 例题解析

    1- How many students are there in your school, Mike?
    - There are over ___ students in our school.
    A. two thousands
    B. two thousands of
    C. two thousand
    D. two thousand of

    [答案] C.

    [析] 有基数词在前面时thousand, hundred 等词不能加s,也不能加of结构,只有在thousands of时才可以使用。

    2 John lives on ___ floor. He doesn't use a lift to go up and down.
    A. nine
    B. the ninth
    C. ninth
    D. a ninth

    [答案] B.

    [析] 序数词前加定冠词,nine 与 ninth 的拼写上有一个e字母相差别。

    3 Wu Dong won the girls' ___ race in the school sports meeting last week.

    A. 100 metres
    B. 100metres
    C. 100 metre
    D. 100metre

    [答案] D.

    [析] 数词、名词、形容词等词用连字符连接成的形容词中,名词都不要加s,如: I have to write a twothousandword report.而且由连字符组成的形容词只能放于名词前,不能放于名词后,作后置定语,或用在be动词后作表语。


    八、 动 词

     (一) 知识概要


        动词在语言中是必不可少的一部分。它的语法现象?#27493;?#22810;,但在初中?#27573;?#20027;要有以下几方面问题。① 时态:初中?#27573;?#20027;要有一般现在时,一般过去时,现在完成时,过去完成时,将来时与过去将来时六种时态。② 语态:主动语态与被动语态。③ 助动词和情态动词。④ 非谓语动词,也就是不定式,动名词及现在分词的用法。时态主要掌握以下几种时态的应用要点和习惯用法。

    1 一般现在时:主要有以下三方面,① 用来表示状态,特征或不受时间限制的客观存在和真理。如:Matter exists in three states物质有三态。又如:The earth moves around the sun ② 表示习惯性和经常发生的动作,如:I often go to bed at 9∶?#24120;藹?③ 在时间、条件等状语从句中表示将来要发生的动作,如:As soon as I get there I'll telephone you.

    2 一般过去时:① 主要用于表达过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状态,如:I was ill last week ② 过去经常发生的动作或习惯性动作,如:I used to get up at six

    3 一般将来时:用于表示将要发生的动作,其构成方式① 用will (shall)+动词原形来表达将来在某一时间内要发生,或经常、将要发生的动作或状态,如:School will begin on Sepember 1st ② 用be going to+动词原形,用来表示不久将要发生或打算去作的动作。如:I'm going to swim this afternoon ③ be+现在分词,也就是用某些动词的现在进行时表示将来,如:I'm coming。这些动词只限于:go, come, leave, start, move, sail, arrive, reach, get to等动词。④ 在状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来。

    4 现在进行时:用于表示现在正在进行的动作,如:What are you doing now?要注意的是表示状态,情感的某些词没有现在进行时,这些动词有:like, have (有),love, know, understand, remember, forget, see, hear, smell, taste, feel, wish hope, expect…

    5 过去将来时:用来表达从过去某时间点上看将要发生的动作,如: He told me he would come to my party

    6 现在完成时与过去完成时?#21512;?#22312;完成时的两个用处是:① 用来表达在过去开始的动作?#20013;?#21040;现在,如:I've studied English for two years ② 用来表达过去发生的事但它影响到现在,如:I haven't had my breakfast. so I'm hungry now 现在完成时与过去完成时的区别在于动作的截止时间,现在完成时所表达的动作截止于现在,而过去完成时所表达的动作截止于过去。如:I haven't seen my old teacher for a long time 我好久未见到我过去的老师了。是指到目前截止。如果加上一句话,则将变为过去完成时,如:Yesterday I saw my old teacher. I hadn't seen him for a long time. 因为我好久未见他这一情况截止于昨天。还要注意的一个问题是截止性动词可以有完成时,但不能与表示一段时间的状语连用,如:When I got to school, the class had begun 如果一定要?#37096;技?#20998;钟了则要换用表示状态,或?#26377;?#24615;动词,如:When I got to school, the class had been on for five minutes语态:英语中只有主动语态与被动语态之分。主动语态,句子中的主语是动作的执行者,如:I broke the window 而被动语态句子中的主语是主动语态句子中的宾语,如:The window was broken by me 被动语态主要用于,动作的执行者?#24187;?#30830;,或没有必要说出来,如:The New building was built last week 关键要注意的是在主动语态中有省略不定式符号to的动词,在被动语态要还原,如: 主动语态 I saw him come in.被动语态 He was seen to come in. 助动词和情态动词:助动?#26102;?#36523;没有词义,它只不过与实义动词?#40644;?#26500;成谓语动词,形成了时态、语态、构成了疑?#31034;洌?#21542;定句,以及用来加强语气。而情态动词则表达一种可能、必要、?#24066;懟?#24895;望、猜测……的意图、倾向。也用来表示语气的委婉和祝愿。初中阶段主要有:can, could, may, might, will, would, must (have to), shall, should。最后要谈论的是非谓语动词,非谓语动词分为不定式,和动词的ing形式,(即现在分词和动名词)。虽然在初中?#27573;В?#36825;一项不是语法重点,但还是要花一定时间去学习,为的是打下良好的基础。为进一步学习提供良好的条件。不定式在句中可以作主语、宾语、表语。如:To see is to believe.(百闻不如一见) He want to see a film 还可以作补足语,如:He wants me to leave.?#37096;?#20197;作状语,如:I come here to learn English.动名词?#37096;?#20197;起到上述作用,如:Seeing is believing. I like swimming very much. 而现在分词多用于作定语、补足语、状语,如: The girl driving a car is her sister.(定语) Did you notice his hand shaking?(宾语补足语)
    Hearing the noise, we stopped talking.(状语)

    (二) 正误辨析

    [误] She laid down and soon fell asleep.

    [正] She lay down and soon fell asleep.

    [析] 考试中常出现的是易混动词lay放,lie躺,lie说?#36873;?#23427;们的过去时、过去分词和现在分词变化如下:

    lay (放) laid, laid, laying (及物动词)
    lie (躺) lay, lain, lying (不及物动词)
    lie (说谎) lied, lied, lying

     (三) 例题解析

    1 Mr Zhang asked me ___ the words again.
    A. read
    B. reads
    C. to read
    D. reading

    [答案] C.

    [析] ask somebody to do something 要求某人作某事。

    2.You ___ play on the road. It's dangerous.
    A. mustn't
    B. may
    C. can
    D. must

    [答案] A.

     [析] must 用于否定句表示禁止做某事。

    3Mr Brown ___ in Beijing since 1993.
    A. work
    B. works
    C. worked
    D. has worked

    [答案] D.

    [析] 句中有since引导的时间状语,因?#21496;?#20013;要用完成时态。
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